A question of consumer "quantifiable harm;" also see High-Profile Study Turns Up the Antitrust Heat on Google (BloombergBusiness)
"The research combines statistical testing with detailed legal and economic analysis to examine the ramifications of Google’s practice of promoting its own specialized search services, such as for local restaurants or doctors, at the expense of rivals like Yelp and TripAdvisor.Study Suggests Google Harms Consumers by Skewing Search Results - WSJ
It was sponsored by Yelp, which has filed a complaint with EU antitrust authorities over Google’s search practices. It was presented to EU regulators on Friday.
The study’s authors— Michael Luca of Harvard Business School and Tim Wu of Columbia Law School—found that users were 45% more likely to click on results that were ranked purely by relevance, rather than as Google ranks them now, with its own services displayed prominently."